About & Our Criteria

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Vocal Analyses



This blog was made with the intent to share knowledge and share vocal analyses from different vocalists in K-pop. Nobody in the blog is a hater or an anti-fan. The analyses give positive and negative points and are all constructive criticism, nobody is telling you to hate or not listen to your favorite idol vocalist. We’re only letting you know what their vocal skill based on what vocal technique and music theory is from a musically professional standpoint. If you’re confused about rankings, categories and such, click the about and our criteria page. This post will also include the information existing in that page if you’re unwilling to click through just click read more. Otherwise click About & Our Criteria and most questions should be answered. We try to back up all our points with substantial evidence from the singers’ performances, we thoroughly listen to their performances from past and present. No one in this blog claims to be an all knowing expert, we’re all learning and everyday we learn more and more, just as we respect your opinions, please respect ours, which were influenced by the knowledge we have and the way we’ve been taught. We encourage healthy discussions about technique! Thank you.


This blog is dedicated to compile vocal analyses done by our contributors in order to satisfy everyone’s curiosity regarding their idols’ vocal. The analysis will be based solely on VOCAL TECHNIQUE, not tone, timbre, emotions, stage presence, etc.

The analysis might change according to their latest performance.

If you would like your idol to be analyzed feel free to drop the question in the comment box. If you feel that the analysis is not accurate, you could suggest a video or recording and give us the reasoning behind your disagreement. We will gladly alter the vocal analysis page of the respective idol if your reasoning behind it is proven.

Comments will be moderated. Constructive discussions are welcome. Bashful and hateful comments will be deleted. Every idol mentioned here is talented in their own way. Even so, we are focusing solely on their vocal capabilities and we try our best to give an objective analysis regarding the matters.

So far, we will use this system as our judging criteria. We will elaborate more once it’s established. It goes from best to worst.


A key of a song means within the key signature of the song. There are 12 notes in total, C C#/Db D D#/Eb E F F#/Gb G G#/Ab A A#/Bb B and back to C, completing one full octave. A tone is from a note up two semitones, so the distance between C and C#/Db is a semitone, whereas C and D are a full note apart. A major Key will follow a tone tone semitone tone tone tone semitone pattern, so C major is C D E F G A B C. Although there are no sharps or flats between E and F or B and C, they’re a semitone apart. # stands for sharp and b stands for flat and whether or not you name a note sharp or flat depends on the key, i.e. C# major and Db major are the same key with different names, C# D# E# F# G# A# B# C# and Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C Db, on a piano the same notes are played, just with different names.

Being able to stay in pitch and in key. Good intonation means not going sharp, flat or singing a note that isn’t within the chord progression and/or key of the song. Going sharp means slightly above the pitch but not really hitting a note above, so like a note in between C and C#, and flat means a note that’s slightly below pitch, so a note in between C and B, for example.

Larynx Position/High Larynx/Low Larynx/Neutral Larynx
The larynx is the part of the body where the vocal cords are located. The vocal cords are very small and are divided into two parts that vibrate against one another in order to create sound. The speed of the vibration generally determines the pitch someone sings in. Much like tuning a guitar, the more stretched the vocal cords are and thinner they become, the higher the pitch and the thicker they are, the lower the pitch is. In order for a note to be hit, one should have a relaxed opened sound in the larynx, without any restrictions from the throat muscles. If the larynx is pushed down, it creates a froggy and fake “soulful” tone, if it’s pulled up, it creates a thinner, squeezed and tight quality to the voice. The natural state of the larynx is being neutral when it’s relaxed, if it’s forced either up or down, that means the muscles in the throat are creating tension and the larynx is trying to reposition itself in an uncomfortable and unnatural position to hit notes that are not within the individual’s supported range. 

Tonality/Tone Production
The way tone and sound is produced through good support. The voice comes out stable, without any laryngeal restriction nor tension, tone is clean and has the true sound of the individual’s voice type, without an uncentered pitch, excessive breathiness, nasality and tension.

The shift between two notes rapidly within, normally, a sustained note. The difference between the notes is usually less than a semitone. A forced throaty vibrato is usually produced artificially by using the throat, instead of the natural vibrato that comes out once the vocal cords are relaxed with good breath support.

The stability of the voice, meaning it’s not off pitch and it doesn’t sound wobbly, shaky and unsupported.

Chest voice, lowest range. Head voice, highest range. Mixed voice, the belting area of the voice.

How the individual vocalist uses their correct breathing technique with the diaphragm to better support, project and hold their voice together.

Placement vs Resonance vs Projection
Resonance is the optimum sound a vocalist should focus on when singing. It is a full, clean and round sound that won’t sound thin, constricted or small. A vocalist who’s resonant will use different types of placements, i.e. their voice will be placed either in their chest, head or mask (cheekbones area, not nose) to project their voice, in each individual register. A vocalist may be able to be resonant in their mixed voice by normally placing their voice in their mask with chest resonance, or as they go higher, with head resonance. A resonant sound is always going to be a projected sound, now resonance doesn’t mean loud, because a loud sound may still be pushed and strained. You may project but still have tension, but in true resonance tension should not be present. Resonance is produced when the vocalist is able to support their voice. In other words, they have developed vocal cords that are able to connect fully in a healthy manner, without breathiness coming between them nor too much constriction, against the right amount of air pressure. Then the supported sound is enhanced with the proper placement of sound, while keeping the soft palate lifted, the larynx position not high, the swallowing muscles, jaw, tongue And throat relaxed and the jaw dropped so as to amplify the sound of the voice. The combination of an open throat, support, relaxed singing and proper placement is what creates healthy resonance in singing.

Vocal Range vs Supported Range vs Tessitura
Vocal range means the individual’s lowest singable note to the individual’s highest singable note.  A tessitura will depend on the individual’s voice type and where their voice sits most comfortably, shines the most and could project the best. A supported range includes notes outside the tessitura where the individual’s voice type may not be naturally inclined to project well in, however so due to the vocalist’s own ability, they’re able to still maintain tone production, support, projection and stability. e.g In classical music, sopranos’ tessituras are something in between A3/C4 to  A5/C6, however in contemporary music a soprano singing as high as C6 is very uncommon and unnecessary; a contemporary soprano, for an example Luna, is able to keep resonance consistently up until Eb5, which is almost ideal for a soprano who should be able to carry that resonance up until A5 without a problem. However so she’s also able to sing down to G3 with correct support, which although is outside her voice type’s natural tessitura, she’s still able to keep support and projection down there.

Musicianship is the act of changing any song given to you and making it your own, usually on the spot. This includes melodic changes, rhythmic changes and added embellishments. Musicality is the act of interpreting music correctly according to each individual genre of music, by adding the correct use of vocal effects (e.g. raspiness, breathiness, growls, vocal runs, vibrato) and playing with the song musically by adding dynamics (e.g. singing softly, loudly, powerfully on the right moments of each song).

Passaggi/Vocal Bridges
A passaggio or a vocal bridge is an area of the voice where one’s voices transition naturally from one to the other in the modal register. Usually for males, the distance between the first passaggio, from chest voice to mixed voice, and the second passaggio, from mixed voice to head voice, is only about a 4th apart, whereas for females it’s about an octave apart. Passaggi are important for one to be able to tell what someone’s voice type is. A register break or the highest note you can sing in your chest/mixed voice before transitioning into head voice is NOT your first passaggio. The first passaggio is a note in your range where your voice naturally feels a switch of muscle coordination in your vocal cords. That doesn’t mean you can’t bring a chest dominant or balanced mixed voice above your first or even second passaggio. Lyric tenors usually have their passaggi around D4/Eb4 and G4/Ab4, whereas lyric baritones have their passaggi at B3 and E4. Lyric sopranos are usually at F4/F#4 and F5/F#5.

A musical phrase usually will last a couple of bars. During a phrase, the melody may be played/sung smoothly connected without every note sounding chopped up, whereas staccato means emphasizing every single note separately with minor less than a second breaks in between every note. Legato is the most basic form of singing through correct breath control and support.

Vocal agility is an embellishment and it means, being able to sing many notes accurately and quickly, by separating each individual note while still being able to connect them within one sung vowel. Those are usually called melismas or vocal runs.


The new labels on the blog will classify vocalists and label them within their own stylistic choices, vocal register development, supported ranges and where their strengths lie. This isn’t to say anybody is better than anybody. This will merely classify them within their own styles. A vocalist may fit into more than one category at a time.

MH Vocalists: Mid-Range Head Voice Vocalists

Vocalists in this category haven’t developed their head voices very high but are able to use them within a relatively low to mid range in their voice type’s tessitura. They maintain connection at will and are able to access their head voices at will.

Sopranos: Up to at least D5 up to G5/G#5
Mezzo-Sopranos: Up to at least C5 up to F5/F#5
Tenors: Up to at least A4 up to D5/Eb5
Baritones: Up to at least F4 up to Bb4/B4

HV Vocalists: High Head Voice Vocalists

Vocalists in this category have developed a relaxed and open sound in their head voices. They can manipulate dynamics, qualities within their head voices, they maintain supported qualities and manipulate the placement in their head voices well.

Sopranos: Starting Around A5
Mezzo-Sopranos: Starting around G5
Tenors: Starting around E5
Baritones: Starting around C5

MB Vocalists: Mid-Range Belters

Vocalists within this category generally perform the best within their mid-belting mixed voice range. Once they go high, they might have issues with keeping their throats as opened as they were in their mid belting ranges. They must be able to produce resonance in their mixed voices to be classified in this category.

Sopranos: Up to at least C5 up to D5/Eb5
Mezzo-Sopranos: Up to at least Bb4 up to C5/C#5
Tenors: Up to at least G4 up to A4
Baritones: Up to at least Eb4 up to F4

HB Vocalists: High Range Belters

Vocalists in this category perform best and have the most ease within their upper mixed voice ranges. They are able to keep an opened sound without losing tone quality, without losing support and without losing volume while still being relaxed. They must be able to produce resonance in their mixed voices to be classified in this category.

Sopranos: Starting around E5
Mezzo-Sopranos: Starting around D5
Tenors: Starting around Bb4
Baritones: Starting around F#4

M Vocalists: Mid-Range Vocalists

Vocalists in this category are those with relatively narrow supported ranges, whose strengths lie in singing within an octave of their range without going too high or too low too often. They generally keep support within a mid one octave range, but outside of that strain can become more apparent and intense.

Sopranos: Falling somewhere within A3/Bb3 ~ Bb4/B4
Mezzo-Sopranos: Falling somewhere within G3/G#3 ~ G#4/A4
Tenors: Falling somewhere within E3 ~ F4/F#4
Baritones: Falling somewhere within C3 ~ C#4/D4

ML Vocalists: Mid-Low Range Vocalists

Vocalists in this category have somewhat developed their lower ranges, but could still further develop the strength in the vocal cord development, projection, support and connection as they descend lower in range.

Sopranos: Going down to about G#3/G3
Mezzo-Sopranos: Going down to about F#3/F3
Tenors: Going down to about C#3/C3
Baritones: Going down to about A2/G#2

LR Vocalists: Low Range Vocalists

Vocalists in this category generally develop their lower ranges well and are comfortable singing lower than most within their voice types. They have developed chest voices, sung without tension, with connection, projection and ease.

Sopranos: Anywhere starting on F#3 and below
Mezzo-Sopranos: Anywhere starting on E3 and below
Tenors: Anywhere starting on B2 and below
Baritones: Anywhere starting on G2 and below

S vocalists: Stylistic Vocalists

Vocalists within this category usually prefer to sing in a specific specialized generally breathy way, narrowing their genre to keep themselves true to their style. They can often prefer breathiness, soft singing, throatiness and falsetto over singing with more connection and belting with more openness/roundness in tone.

C Vocalists: Commercial Vocalists

Vocalists in this category lack in terms of clarity of tone and overall management of airflow. They don’t necessarily prefer stylistic qualities like breathiness or soft singing. Instead they prefer to sing in a way that’s specific to their own music only, preferring to sing with high larynxes, or more air pressure, etc.

MA Vocalists: Melismatic/Agile Vocalists

This category is exclusive for the vocalists who have learned to how to properly move their vocal cords from note to note, at the center of pitch, with precision, control and ease. They have flexible vocal cords that respond to changes in pitch without sliding through them, but instead hitting each single note at a time with accuracy.

WR vocalists: Well Rounded Vocalists

Vocalists in this category have developed their ranges to sing within a variety of genres and styles while keeping a strong connection between their vocal cords and air management to sing with minimal strain within a wider range, from chest voice to mixed voice to head voice. The development of each of those registers should be both consistent and balanced.

For further question you can check our “The Team” page and contact us directly if you’d like.


Ahmin & Pandayeu




10,356 thoughts on “About & Our Criteria

  1. Could you make a video to talk about twang, vowel(close,open,wide…), opened/closed throat, throat shape, placement( how to control the air flow to change the placement?), compare the mask placement head voice and head placement heady mix? many ppl are confused in these term (included me:()

    And i’m still confused in undeveloped, support and strain. undeveloped meaning the muscle isn’t strong enough but can we produce a undeveloped voice without strain? when we produce a undeveloped voice without strain and airy, what are the different between undeveloped and supported?

    Could i ask about you comment about CVT? CVT look like it can reduce the damage of strain and singing with strain. if singer using CVT’s skill to sing, can they support their voice?


    1. Sure that’s a lot of requests and I’ll try to get to them as soon as I can! Yes we can producer underdeveloped singing without straining, but it still will most likely not be supported either. Support needs the muscles to be developed, strengthened, so that the sound can be placed, the throat can be opened and the overall production of tone is clean. If the muscles aren’t developed, the sound will be thin and shallow most likely. I’m sorry but what is CVT?


      1. Complete Vocal Technique
        it have 4 different mode
        Neutral, curbing, overdrive and edge

        i look forward to watch your vocal tips!!
        Thank you for your quick reply.


      2. i’m sorry if there are something misunderstanding.
        it look like one of the advanced vocal technique with some scientific research.
        Maybe i misunderstand their theory.
        in their system, they can sing with strained sound and it is healthy. so i’m confused maybe they can reduce the damage of strain. just i guess.


    1. The notes were Bb3 and G#3. Why did you add Me at the beginning? This isn’t bad, but I’d do it slightly softer. There’s just a bit of tension in the throat that could become more apparent if you kept going up.


      1. 1. I have a feeling that the Bb3 was mixed.If it was, it was relatively balanced with shouty quality right? When I try to sing heady, which is common for me, I ended up being half airy.

        2. Have you heard Kihyun from Monsta X produces supported G4? He sounds like Got7 Youngjae who has nice pitch when not doing runs.

        3. Aside from Kihyun, who has the grasp of support between Shownu and Wonho? They’re both lead vocalist.

        Thank you for answering my questions! 🙂


      2. 1. Yes mixing with some shouting, not too much.

        2. I don’t think he supports G4’s, at least I don’t believe I’ve ever heard he do so.

        3. I don’t believe any of them do. The only time I’ve heard Shownu show support was in All Of Me, but every other example of him singing didn’t quite live up to that.


      1. It was easy to misunderstand cause it was louder and chestier, but it was more in his throat than anything.

        Chungha? It was her voice pre-recorded? Cause that was Somi. Either way yes that’s G5.


      2. Somi was the one who sang the first part then it was Chungha you can hear her voice in the “you need a bad girl to blow your mind” part.


  2. Hello Ahmin. Do you see idol school? If yes, do you think some of the girls could be good, I mean, if some of them stand out among the rest vocally? I think Shin Sia, Park Jiwon, Song Hayoung, Lee Dahee, Kim Nayeon, Seo Herin and Lee Haein stand out, but maybe I’m wrong or I forgot someone else, so can you give me a little opinion (if you see the program of course, if not it’s ok). Anyway thanks so much in advance.


  3. Hi Ahmin, I was wondering who sang the high note better in ITNW, Yuju or Yeunjung?

    (Yuju beginning at 3:40)

    (Yeonjung beginning at 2:13)

    I personally think Yuju did it better.


      1. Oops! I linked the wrong video. The one I was supposed to link was over 4 mins long. But you understood what I meant so it’s aight.

        I figured. They both sounded strained but Yeonjung just couldn’t handle the note. Hopefully, Yuju could support that note in the future.


  4. Hello, me again with some questions. I’ve done the vocal fry exercise to reduce the airy quality in my singing. Maybe I’m less breathy now, but there’s a problem. I feel like I’m throaty(?) I don’t know for sure, though. If I sing along with music with someone singing, I’ll be throaty, but only if the singer is woman. I’m okay if the singer is man, or if I sing by myself. How do I eliminate that throaty feeling?

    Another question. For a baritone, how low does a note to be considered as a low note (if it’s a thing). Is F#2 low enough to be “impressive”? It’s tiring to exercise on higher note, and I want to explore my lower register more. It’s tiring to exercise on my higher register too LOL.


    1. I can understand why that may happen and you may feel that way. I need to hear this better, because I’m not sure I understand why you’d be throaty singing with a woman and not throaty singing with a man. Actually you really shouldn’t be singing along to tracks to practice, you should sing by yourself because you should be able to hear yourself. F#2 is pretty impressive for a baritone if done well yes. You should really focus on your whole range, not just parts of it.


  5. Hey Ahmin, i’ve got two questions for you, first is if teen tops ricky is a tenor, and second its a bit longer, what is the usual note where a bass starts mixing? like u know, where they switch from chest to mixed voice naturaly, thank you:)


  6. I remember seeing on a post a while back, that you said girls should be able to sing a C6 even if it’s just squeaked out (or something to that effect) and with no vocal training. I was wondering, what is that note for guys? What note should we be able to hit in chest voice (and head voice/falsetto) even without any vocal training.


  7. Hey, Ahmin! Would you mind giving an opinion on this video of Yoohyeon from Dreamcatcher? The video for it isn’t live, so I’m not sure what your policy is on that. Also as a general question, how would a group like Dreamcatcher fall into your rules for Vocal Analysis? Technically, they just debuted as Dreamcatcher this year, but all the main vocalists were apart of Minx, which debuted in 2014. As always, thanks!


    1. Someone already asked about it today, so here it is:

      “0:33 G#3 not too bad. This is a really pretty song, I have no idea who this is by. lol She has a very relaxed and more or less forward sound throughout the verses, except for some of the bottom low notes like G#3. Her support sounds more or less clean otherwise, except this is a studio track. 1:40 this is too high for her here, I know that she strains C#5’s so this isn’t new to me. I know that her support would max out at B4 or so that’s what I’m more interested in hearing. 1:45 G#4 to A4 she sounds more or less supported. 1:55 really tight and closed D5 and C#5, 1:59 I would say the B4 also still carries tightness and tension, more so than support. 2:38 B4, I would not say she supports B4, she pushes it through her throat too much but I would say she supports A4. I think she is likely to be able to support Bb4, but B4 and above, this is all strained and tight. 3:19 really tight E5.”

      They might be analyzed as soon as we can, I’m not entirely sure.


      1. Thanks! Sorry, I didn’t see it posted before. Not sure if someone else told you, but the song is Secret Love Song Pt II by Little Mix.

        Any sense yet if the better vocalist in Dreamcatcher is Yoohyeon or Siyeon yet, or is it too early too tell?


    1. Some people seem to view belting as something other than a chesty mix. Most people who use the word belting mean mixed voice, but oftentimes it’s a synonym for a chest dominant mixed voice. At other times, it may mean someone who resists the normal mixed voice and tries to pull chest voice as high as they can without mixing as much. So it depends on the context that it’s used, but theoretically yes, it can be supported for sure. It may not be, but it should be possible.


      1. Wow, really? I would’ve thought it was at most F2/F#2. G2 is still like…my speaking zone. And how about Head voice? Can you make a comparison with C6 for sopranos to around D5/Eb5 for baritones?


  8. Just out of curiosity, why did you guys decide to take out the full/light lyric descriptors for voice types? Are there too many vocalists with darker voices that are somewhere in between (Daesung, Solji, Kim Yeon Woo…)?


    1. Daesung isn’t dark he still just a lyric tenor his mix is just very chesty the way they mix and place their voices make it sound like they all have a different type but most of them are in the same category


    1. Not really the proper but technique is often used for belting, which you know is bit stylistic. The method is you lower it first before you push your voice with neutral larynx. It’s like you’re preparing yourself for that high, loud voice.


  9. Ahmin, I have several questions
    Is it normal if an untrained Baritone can’t mix properly above F4?
    Does it happen because of undeveloped muscles?
    What muscles do we need to train?
    And I’m curious if Support exercise can help to extend mix range even it’s out of supported range



    1. It’s perfectly normal yes. Yes untrained underdeveloped muscles are the primary reason. It depends on how you mix right now but it’s a mix of chest and head voice muscles. Yes yes the support exercise can 100% address this.


      1. It’s a lip trill. It can be done to kind of warm up the vocal cords, while keeping the facial muscles and jaw more relaxed. It’s a very common warm up, most singers if not all of them do it. It can be normal to get a head ache if you’re not used to that kind of placement, although most people feel a headache if they sing in head voice.


  10. i have read your explanation of falsetto and head voice in classical and contemporary.

    “head voice is produced by cricothyroid muscle mostly with some thyroarytenoid muscle in both men and women”
    and i think heady mixed voice is similar with it (mainly cricothyroid and less thyroarytenoid)

    What are the different between head voice and very heady mixed voice in muscle working?

    and falsetto is only used cricothyroid muscle or similar with head voice?
    i’m pretty confused since someone say only used thyroarytenoid muscle can’t connect the vocal cord fully.

    if it is real, what are the different between falsetto and very very airy head voice(i think airy is because vocal cord didn’t connected fully) ?

    then, i’m confused in falsetto, very airy head voice and very airy heady mixed voice.


    1. As far as I remember, by using Falsetto you can’t do dynamics such as Crescendo (gradual increase of volume or loudness) or Diminuendo (gradual decrease of volume or loudness). Even it’s very airy head voice, you still can do Crescendo and Diminuendo

      For very airy and heady mixed voice I too don’t know the difference


    2. I’m not entirely sure what the difference is because when I sing with a mask or chest placed head voice, I do feel that I’m using my chest voice muscles to an extent it’s kind of a mix as well. But there’s a flip of the registers at one point, but I am so sorry, but I really actually am not sure what the difference is in the muscles between a head voice, or a mask placed head voice, and a heady mixed voice.

      From what I know, falsetto is only cricothyroids. A very airy head voice would use both muscles and have the actual connection, with air passing through. So difference muscles would be working. Sometimes an airy heady mixed voice can sound a lot like a head voice, and I can tell the difference when I hear it, but I am not so sure what’s going on in the muscles in that case.

      Liked by 1 person

  11. Would it be best to train with an opera singer? And i always wondered how female opera singers can teach belting when they were never taught how to do it.


    1. Not necessarily. For support and head voice yes, but if you want to sing pop, you have to learn from someone who knows how to teach pop singing. The way the vocal cords are developed for classical singing is fairly different from pop singing.


  12. Hi admins! I was wondering if you can answer some my curiosities? It’s kind a lot but I’m very sure you can answer it easily😅
    1. Does the speed of vibrato can be controlled? Or it just the same & constant everytime a vocalist sing?
    2. I know the ideal type of vibrato that a vocalist should use is “natural vibrato” where the notes are well supported & fully resonant, but how about vibrato someone use outside of SR or strained? What is that? & how the sounds so similar with NV?
    3. Does the outer appearance of someone when using vibrato is indication of good or bad technique? For example, when Sohyang uses it her face is completely still but start shake a little when singing HV in 6th octave. Meanwhile Seungyeon shaking his jaw while Younghyun shaking his entire face but in some moments, both of them can stand still like Sohyang. Is it actually bcuz they choose to do that or what?
    4. If Sohyang as a soprano can mix & resonate up to C#6 & HV to E6, how high is the notes equivalent to that for mezzo, tenor & baritone?
    5. So I want to practice using falsetto & HV, how do I know which one I use? I mean if I use falsetto where’s the part of my head that produce it that I can feel? & the same with HV?
    6. This is a little bit about EXO but it’s written in analysis that D.O is the most agile while Chen is the most sloppy among CBD, so what confuses me is that why it’s written that Chen has the best intonation while D.O is the second? Bcuz if he can be very accurate with his pitch in his runs then doesn’t it make sense he’ll be the same with the rest of the song, no? Am I missing something?😅
    7. Lastly, it’s about placement. I know in mixed register, if you placed your voice in chest then your belting will sound darker & heavy while it’s the opposite with head placement. & often I can just feel it(like if the belting is chesty, I can feel my chest constricted while if heady, I can feel the pressure inside my head). But what’s the effect & outcome of the voice if someone sing with chest voice but placed it in mask or head & the same with head voice placed in mask or chest?
    8. What’s the difference between runs, riffs & trills?
    I’m really sorry with the long multiple questions bit I hope you don’t mind answering all of it for me😅


    1. 1. As far as I am aware, the speed of the vibrato can be controlled if it is done using an unnatural vibrato. With your natural vibrato, as far as I know, you can’t control the speed of your vibrato and it is the same usually throughout. I could be wrong and I am not entirely sure here.

      2. Actually a natural vibrato can happen without resonance and without necessarily having steady support. If you know how to use a natural vibrato, you can make it happen outside of your supported range although it might not come out as even and steady, but it can still be induced. Many people though use an unnatural vibrato outside of their supported range or they try to force their natural vibratos to come out which is why they may not be even.

      3. A lot of these are visual effects as well as habits. Some vocalists feel as though if they do these things, they can sing with more ease. So let’s see, for me it’s easier to visualize notes so I might use my hands to guide my voice as if I’m picturing each individual note I’m singing but it doesn’t necessarily mean I’m doing it right or wrong. Some of these can be bad habits and cause minimal tension, but in pop it’s excusable.

      4. I don’t think there’s a correct answer for this, especially because with the difference in passaggi and registers, it’s really hard to find a common note for head voice for males and females. For sopranos and mezzos, you could say A5 or Bb5 is like C6 for a soprano, depending on the voice type. And for head voice, that same kind of distance should be generally applicable, but for a male, the gap would be a bit odd. Perhaps around F5/F#5 for a tenor would be C#6 in mix for a soprano, but I am not entirely sure and I would argue that you can’t compare them directly as they get higher.

      5. Have you seen these?

      6. Agility and pitch for agility is kind of a different type of intonation. When we said that, we meant for singing in general. Like on a normal melodic line, not in runs. Being good at runs, pitch wise, doesn’t necessarily mean you’re always breathing accurately to carry through phrased lines without dropping support a bit and then losing the sense of pitch slightly.

      7. I am not sure what you mean by “effect and outcome.” I mean you can place your chest voice in your mask and kind of mix in your chest voice range, which will give you a lighter and brighter sound overall. This just gives someone more control, the ability to choose what register to use with a different placement while still maintaining support throughout. It really depends on the sound you want.

      8. Runs, riffs and melismas, as far as I’m aware, are the same thing. Give me one second. Apparently a run is a spontaneous run of notes, while a riff is a repeated melodic idea. A trill, is a shorter version of both. It’s like a bounce of notes, you could say a run is composed of 2 or more trills, if that makes sense.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Ahh thank you so much ahmin for answering! But there are still questions bugging me after seeing some of your answer here.
        2. I didn’t know this! I was always told that natural vibrato only appear once you’re well supported & resonant. So with that case, what exactly natural vibrato? I mean how it’s produced to be called natural & ideal to use?
        4. “You can’t compare them as they get higher” why? Bcuz they have different produced sound as they sing higher?
        5. No, I’m not aware of those videos. I’d like to watch that to help my practice😊
        7. What I mean by “effect & outcome” is how the voice produced will sound like. Like in my observations earlier, the “effect” of placing your voice in chest would make your belting & mixed voice sounds dark & heavy, while placing it in your head will create opposing effect. But you already confirmed my assumption with your example, that placing the voice in mask or head will make the chest voice lighter & brighter. But I was wondering what’d it be for HV placed in mask or chest? Does that make it dark & thick too like in mixed voice?

        I’ve one extra question, I forgot to include it in earlier post. What’s screaming & shouting definition in vocal pedagogy? Bcuz people often is unaware that they call those two the same as belting or mixing even. So I’d like to know the differences😊

        & I see a comment after mine that talk about people pretended to know everything & spread false information. & I honestly give you & other admin in here a prop for stay collected & rational when facing this kind of people. If it’s me, I’d have throw the profanities back to them already the moment they start using it as a resort for not being able to make me agree with their points. Sometimes they can be very dumb too, stating something obvious like saying the note is resonant eventho it’s clear it’s strained even for fairly untrained ears like me. Smh.


      2. 2. A natural vibrato mostly exists if a vocalist knows how to support but it doesn’t mean that in parts of their range where only support isn’t present doesn’t mean they can’t use a vibrato. A natural vibrato happens by having a slight pulse of the vocal cords, it’s like a movement forward and backward. It’s not up and down like a laryngeal vibrato.
        4. Because the passaggi for women are an octave apart and for men are a 4th apart. So it’s hard to compare them as if our voices were parallel.
        5. They should help! ^ ^
        7. A head voice placed in the mask and chest is showcased in my head voice videos above so you’ll hear the quality. It makes it sound like it’s mixed voice.

        Screaming and shouting? A lot of pressure of air against the vocal cords while tending up the swallowing muscles and compressing the larynx without actually allowing the vocal cords to stretch on their own.

        If we use profanities to others then we are 1. already in the wrong and 2. we lose our professionalism. But I feel you.


  13. I know that you commented about Tinashe’s The Star-Spangled Banner performance before on this blog but I can’t find it. Can you help me? the comment that you talked about her resonant C5.


  14. Any tips on how to deal with people who act like they know everything about vocals even though they didnt even learn it professional and then start spreading false things about a vocalist?

    Liked by 3 people

    1. This is so difficult to answer cause it’s the story of my life and I’m not sure I can give good advice about this cause I’m still learning to deal with these people. Many times I try to explain things to them respectfully, slowly and nicely. I try to break things down and I don’t stoop down to their level if they try to call me names. If they’re calling me names, they don’t know what they’re talking about and so they have to resort to name calling. So in order to remain neutral and professional, you have to explain things to them without being condescending or without making them look stupid. Just be kind and if they still respond immaturely, leave them be, they’re not worth your time.

      Liked by 1 person

  15. Hi ahmin/pandayeu, I was the one requesting you guys to analyze Ha Hyun Woo not so long ago, and I’ve been trying to be patient since then, but I end up checking almost everyday to findout whether his analysis came out XD I’m not even exaggerating lol

    Now after doing some KoMS-marathon I just cant help myself but to ask you these (since I’m an absolute amateur in vocal technique):

    1. I found a video about his vocal range in KoMS (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O_iQDvmEzQ0), it’s stated the lowest note he got in KoMS was down to Bb1.

    Does this means that his true vocal range might really start from the 1st octave?

    2. Did he always strain above A4? especially the ones on the 5th octave e.g. in Waiting Everyday and Don’t Cry (where he reach a magnificent A5)

    3. When exactly will you analyze him? It wont be in the next year right? (the real question tho xD)

    Thankyou! ^^


    1. We aren’t likely to count vocal fry in ones vocal range. You’ll find the answer for the other questions after he’s analyzed. Our next analyses are Seo Inyoung and Kim Dongryul. After they’re done I’ll analyze Park Kiyoung, Lee Younghyun, Ha Hyunwoo, Kim Bumsoo and perhaps The One. Then I’ll analyze idols who debuted in late 2014 and in 2015.


      1. what a quick response! ❤ thanks, ahmin!

        Ok I think I'll just wait a lil bit more following the order lol

        One more question: is it possible for someone to train themselves the proper technique w/o any vocal instructor?


      2. It is possible, but very hard. If you’re naturally able to pick up good vocal habits just by hearing and emulating, then yeah. Otherwise it could be very frustrating and difficult.


  16. Hello there! I lurk the blog a lot and have posted myself singing before (maybe 2 years ago). I was wondering if you had the time to take a quick listen to my more recent self singing?

    Here is me singing in 2015

    And here’s my singing from earlier this month

    They’re both the same song but different recordings, I stumbled on the lyrics in both though haha,,,

    Would you say there’s anything I’ve improved on? Or perhaps that I still do wrong? I find that I still have trouble mixing and can’t determine if I’m just using falsetto/head voice or not.

    Even if you can’t listen or don’t have the time to, thank you regardless for all the work you do on this blog! 🙂


    1. Hi! Hey I recognize you don’t worry and I went to check and I remember your comment, when I asked if you were of Korean descent and you said you were from Hawaii. So don’t worry, I remember more than you’d think! haha

      This is definitely a lot better than in Dreams, but not necessarily because you did or not improve your technique but mostly because you’re not singing with pure breathiness and falsetto throughout. I still don’t necessarily agree with your key choices, I feel you choose keys that are too high for you. So you tend to stay needing to use head voice. You were using a lot more connection in this, a lot more head voice. You have a very nice voice actually, when it does come out naturally. But the problem is that you mostly use the head voice muscles even when singing in your chest voice so apart from like E3 ~ C3, that range, you seem to favor singing with a mixed approach. Not only that, but there’s far too much air passing through the vocal cords even in your lower range. Your head voice was actually less breathy this time and throughout in comparison to your chest. I don’t think your voice is as high as you think it is, at least key-wise. You could sing in a key that suits you better.

      To me it sounds like you’re scared of mixing or belting. Like you want to switch to head voice that’s easier and less scary, instead of challenging yourself and actually using mixed voice. Also I’d work on stopping the breathiness and venturing into your chest voice and lower range.


      1. Yep that’s me haha!

        I’m glad that my approach to singing is better than before. I actually find it hard to find songs in a lower key that feel comfortable for me to sing. I guess that could go back to my being scared of mixing or belting. Thank you! A lot of my friends who also sing like to make fun of me because they say my voice sounds very “ambiguously asian” haha. That’s actually something I’ve been trying to focus on is being less airy, especially in my upper range. Guess it’s time to work on evening everything out.

        The biggest thing I seem to have trouble with is kind of hard to explain? I guess it feels like I have a hard time “isolating” each register? Like I think I might be using chest voice or mixing but I’m still pulling other voices into them? I usually try to place my voice where it’s most comfortable, though that would probably be why I tend to stay too safe and switch to head voice instead. I’m the kind of person who usually doesn’t like to challenge myself and stay the same, so trying to improve in singing has been a really great thing for me to try and better myself. Thank you very much for the reply and advice!


      2. Why don’t you just try singing something like…something that doesn’t go high at all and stay in that key. If we go for Korean, Take Me Away by U-Kiss could work or Fools by Troye Sivan, not too high, not too low and it can help you isolate that part of your range for you to explore it more. You singing so much in head voice makes your voice type really ambiguous.


  17. Does Ong Seongwu from Wanna One support at all? To me, it seems like he pushes too much and uses too much air when he sings, which leads me to believe that he probably doesn’t. But what’s your take on it?


  18. Hi this is my first comment here I love your blog it really helps me to understand singing
    I have 3 questions
    1 I wanted to ask you how did Sinb in this part 1:55-2:02 were https://youtu.be/z23poU-vl6o
    did she supported anything or did she strained? and can you tell me which notes they were
    2 I saw that someone asked you about Yuju’s head voice in their newest Immortal songs perfomance i wanted to know how did Yuju do in general did she sound tired ,worst or normal because i saw that she collapsed the day before the recording because of abdominal pain ?
    3 Does something like abdominal pain can affect your singing beacuse you sing with you diaphragm ?


    1. Hi there! Thank you for the love and support!

      1. Funny enough, it is not the first time someone asks about this specific video although they were making a comparison between SinB and Eunha.
      “She is less breathy and sounds less like she wants to sing “cute” but she is very very tight throughout her line. Her throat is closed the whole time, she is really squeezing so no, I wouldn’t say that’s slightly better than Eunha personally.” She is singing from Bb4 up to D5.

      2. Abdominal pain wouldn’t directly affect the condition of her vocal cords, but it could affect her breathing. To me the sound barely highlighted her vocally and barely focused on singing much at all, so it didn’t sound much different than her usual singing.

      3. As I said before, yeah it could although I can’t say I’ve personally experienced this before.


    1. I can’t answer the question, but I believe Ahmin said the names in the future analyses list were more like placeholders since he doesn’t yet know who has the best technique in Astro so he just put MJ, the main vocalist, and Sanha, the lead vocalist because those two were the ones requested at the time. (Yes, I know Moonbin is a lead vocalist as well.)

      Liked by 1 person

    1. The highest mixed voice was E4 and the highest head was C6. This isn’t really singing, it’s hard to tell you what you have to work on musically because this was just random sounds.

      I mean I hear lazy diction, your vowels aren’t opened nor projected. You place your sound in your nose without drooping your jaw enough while being really raspy and in your throat. You’re like aspirating through your sound and pushing your voice out. Then the head voice portion is a lot cleaner but really pushed and shouty.

      Do you like do vocal exercises or sing songs? Do you have any experience with vocal lessons?


  19. Hello! can you listen to my recording and tell me what you think? I’m mostly want to know if i am dropping my mouth wide enough? also are my vowels too wide? I Believe i might still have a issue with that and if so what tips do you have for fixing it. Thank you! https://soundcloud.com/user-187677340/voice-088/s-6Bfcg Oh also am i starting to push to much again? i don’t want to bring in the bad habits of my old voice teacher again, though breaking a habit of 3 years of lessons is hard.


    1. Dropping the jaw shouldn’t be about being wide, it should be about be dropped downward to create a tall round sound, not a wide spread out sound. 0:48 you’re too quick, you were ahead of the beat throughout the pre-chorus. Yes you’re pushing, when you get higher and you’re flat 0:27, there’s a bit of a slide and you’re not quite getting up to the final note. 0:38 too. You need to engage the throat shape better and place the sound better, this song is a bit high so it’s okay to have issues. You’re not nasal which is a good thing, but you’re a bit heavy and you seem to resist the higher placement. Your volume is kind of loud throughout, you need to be able to pull back a bit.


      1. Would you say Taeil is kind of close to producing resonance? According to your comments, he’s the most opened of NCT’s vocal line. He doesn’t really sound nasal to me and he’s able to support up to G4, rarely G#4. I feel like just one more nudge in the right direction and he’ll be able to produce some resonance in the near future.


      2. It’d be so much easier if you could easily tell when a person is going to sing with resonance. in the future. Oh well, that kind of magic doesn’t exist.

        Liked by 1 person

  20. Hey Ahmin, it’s me again!
    1. Since my mixed voice has always cracked or sounded really weak above D4 I’ve been trying to fix this for a while now with vocal exercises-please could you take a listen? I feel like they are helping me develop more ease up there but I would like to know if my approach to those higher notes is right and if there is anything wrong that you hear!
    2. One thing I have noticed is that when I do these the ‘bao’ sound projects and sounds more connected the ‘neigh’ and ‘ma’ sounds which seem a lot weaker and at times airier and I’m wondering how to fix this?
    3. Another thing I’m trying to work on from your previous tip is better vocal cord connection but I’ve come across a problem. I’m never sure when (or if) I ever achieve proper vocal cord closure! Could you listen to ‘Feel So Fine’ to point out a few instances where I am connecting well and when I am not?
    4. In ‘If I Were A Boy’ am I right in saying, for example that the verse from F#2 to C#3 is not properly connected but at 0:29 the ‘boy’ is and 0:32 ‘could’ is, and 1:12 ‘wrong’ isn’t?
    5. To challenge myself a bit more I changed the keys of the songs to max-out at Eb4, how would you say they are? Do you think I’m going too high and straining a lot?
    Sorry for the essay… ! I hope you don’t mind me asking so many questions, it’s just that your advice really means a lot and shapes the way I approach singing!


    1. Hi there dear!

      1 and 2. Okay so for Naeng Naeng, you seem to kind of yawn slightly and you sound very floaty, like you’re pushing yourself upwards as you do it, and you’re starting the exercise with air instead of finding the right connection of your vocal cords first beforehand. For Bao, you’re pushing it too far into your nose. Ma, it’s too staccato. It’s not a connected staccato. Honestly on all of them it sounds like you’re kind of holding your breath and breathing very shallow, it sounds like your voice is kind of locked and stuck in the space between your neck and chest. You need to make sure you breathe deeper down, that you hold the air with the diaphragm expanded, that your shoulders nor chest go up and that you remain relaxed, while connecting the vocal cords even before sound comes out. You’re a bit too breathy throughout and I think it’s cause your focusing or overthinking singing high and light but forgetting to actually connect so hold your breath and let go of air a few times to feel your vocal cords because they’re the ones that hold your breath, then focus on the sensation of connection before sound comes out THEN let it come out.

      3. Again here I am still hearing that you’re very disconnected, like you’re always running of air. You’re never keeping it in the diaphragm, you’re always letting go more air than you need to and that makes you lose your support and your legato. You sound like you’re gasping for air a lot and that’s just because you’re not managing the air coming out enough, which is also what causes you to have a wobbly vibrato.

      4. I would say that your connection in your lower range is more connected than the exercises. 0:28 I hear a very slight H before the If, like Hif I were a boy, and I’d say If I were were more connected than boy, 0:33 could again, there are random puffs of air that come out, like you have more H’s in your sound than what you thought you did. You need to learn to minimize all this breath coming out and keep it in your diaphragm. Indeed the wrong 1:12 is less connected, “But you’re just a boy” you’re more connected there. I think you’re overthinking singing as if it has to be super different from speaking, but you wouldn’t speak like…disconnecting everything right? Try to breeze through it as if you were speaking. It should be as easy as that.

      5. I think the range in which you were singing was just fine, don’t worry about that. I think your first concern should be achieving a strong and more efficient stretch and connection between your vocal cords. ^ ^


      1. Wow the amount you can pick up from just a few seconds of clip is astounding!
        The breathing and letting go tip really helped, I can actually feel that sensation when they come together. Now need to learn to do that consistently all the time ^_^
        Thank you so much Ahmin!


  21. Dear Ahmin
    Im having a performance for the senior party on October and I want to sing Rainy Season by Jung In
    For an untrained baritone what do you think is the good key for me compared to the original version


      1. I do know it, I just didn’t know the title. lol What range are you comfortable singing in? Without the adlibs, the range of the song is F#3 ~ Eb5, but with the adlibs there are F#5’s and G#5’s. If it’s just Eb5 as the highest note, you could do it 2 or 3 semitones higher and make the range G#2 ~ F4 or A2 ~ F#4, but those could be quite challenging keys for a baritone.


      2. Thank u man. I choose to sing in the same instrumental but find the way. Hyorin sings somehow easier (she used falsetto for the Eb5) . I try to do it 3,4 semitone higher and itz still fine for me . Anyway. Thank you very much


  22. Can you give me informations about dimash kudaibergen if you know him ? He seems to be in high level when it come to head voice and mixed range ,,, sorry since it’s not related to kpop but I can’t help it


    1. 0:11 lots of throatiness and shouting on the C#5’s, 0:18 her throat isn’t opened at all on the C5’s. She is just pushing from her throat throughout the higher parts, she is not supporting almost at all. Her sound is all locked in her throat with her muscles tightening up and closing and she’s trying to pull through with excessive chestiness and air pressure. Then when she sings lighter she’s all breathy and slightly too nasal, then when she sings higher she’s again shouty and overly pushed and loud. 2:26 so much throat tension on C5’s and B4’s. I hadn’t heard Sunmi sing for real in years and this isn’t exactly what I was hoping for.


      1. Thanks for the analysis. That is what i thought too. I kinda hoped since she is no longer with JYP that with her new company, she would get a better vocal training but yeah, it is a shame…


      1. Sorry but I don’t understand what you mean. Is this singer not worthy of your analysis or did you already analyze this performance? I tried to search but I don’t know her name.

        Liked by 1 person

      2. Worthy sounds really mean. That is NOT what I mean. She is not an artist, she’s not a K-pop vocalist. She’s a fan who got to sing on Hidden Singer but she isn’t a vocalist for whom we will write a full analysis in the future, so I really can’t say I have the time to watch this video right now. Sorry.


      3. Sorry I misunderstood, your wording got me confused lol. Not that I expect a long analysis, I’m just curious about her high notes since hers is the most stable cover I’ve heard of this song.


  23. hi,
    this is unrelated to kpop analysis but i’m trying to get more into singing and was wondering if you could give me some tips? i’ve never been trained/taken lessons aside from being in my primary school choir lol but i really enjoy singing so i’d love to know what i can do to improve
    also i have no idea what i’m classified as (tenor etc…?)
    thanks so much for your time ~


    1. Wait are you not a girl? Cause you sound like one for sure. And as a girl, you can’t be a tenor. I’m not sure what your voice type is cause you’re untrained but you seem like an untrained soprano to me.

      The thing that you do when you sing is that you slide a lot and you hold out notes even if the phrasing is supposed to cut off a bit more. You sometimes start the notes too flat and then take too long to slide into them and there’s far too much breathiness when you sing, lots of additional H’s that shouldn’t be there. Your diction also, focus more on the vowels, don’t drag your consonant sounds out too long.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. thanks for the feedback!! sorry i wrote tenor by mistake. what do you mean by ‘sliding’? do you have any suggestions for any videos which might be helpful for the things you’ve noticed particularly?
        as for diction/breathiness, could you maybe give an example of where i have gone wrong/what i should have done instead? because i’m not too sure i fully comprehend what you are saying/how to change to improve
        tysm for your time if u do!! sorry for making u explain ;-;


      2. I mean like instead of singing a note right on, you start at a slightly lower pitch and then slowly scoop your way up to the note you are supposed to hit, although not always necessarily getting there. Have you seen the video we’ve posted on how to support? That would target all those issues. Well again the vowels, you don’t allow your voice to come through with vowels, oftentimes you go for the consonants instead. I can’t re-watch it right now, try watching the support video and let me know if you get it and if you still don’t, I’ll come back to this later.


  24. Could you please give me a short analysis on this girl named Han Seohee? She is the trainee who smoked weed with T.O.P and she’s going to debut soon with a 4-membered girl group. For me, she sounds like she could support but sometimes her placement sounds tight and throaty.


    1. She is going to debut? The one who said all that stuff about kissing and hugging the oppas? I’m surprised. She pushes her sound into her throat because she lowers her larynx inconsistently, mostly in her lower range. There is some support, but the quality of the audio isn’t the best. The upper part is not too tense, a bit pushy, but not too much.


      1. Yes, the only person in this world who gives birth to the iconic “you f***ing b*tches. yes i hugged and kissed your oppas. you can’t do anything about it, right? losers.”

        She is gonna debut around January 2018. Stan the bisexual feminist legend, stan Han Seo Hee.


      1. I looked them up really quick. They’re Golden Child (11 members) and they debuted at the end of last month, so they’re pretty new. The one who did the note was Y (stage name). He’s the main vocalist of the group.

        Liked by 1 person

  25. Hello! I have a general question about the voice. Some people’s voices are very bright and pure, and so I would compare them to something like a trumpet, horn, or a flute (e.g. Sohyang, Daesung from Big Bang, Jimin from BTS, Tiffany from SNSD, Jonghyun from Shinee, Eunkwang from BTOB etc…). On the other hand, some people have more, not necessarily thin, but ‘reed-y’ voices that perhaps have a more saxophone quality (e.g. Taeyeon and Jessica from SNSD, Baekhyun from EXO, Gummy, Jisoo from Blackpink, Jungkook from BTS, Changsub from BTOB, lots of the hip-hop/RnB singers like Bumkey lol). Of course its not black and white and is probably more of a spectrum, but my question is, would you say that this is a result of natural voice or style/technique? I’m curious because I personally want to sound more on the saxophone side, but it’s slightly uncomfortable to do so because I am focusing the sound more in the nose to achieve that reediness. I just feel that that kind of sound fits more in contemporary pop music.


    1. Hi there! I think this is definitely more on the subjective aspect of singing perception because some of the people you’ve used as examples, I can’t say I hear the same. For an example, Taeyeon and Baekhyun have warm voices which is saxophone-like, while Sohyang and Eunkwang do sing bright and so I can hear the flute/horn/trumpet quality. But then Jimin and Daesung? I hear some major technical issues that to me make them sound either super throaty or blocked and I can’t say I’d use them as examples of those qualities, whereas Jisoo is more similar to Jimin to me or even Jungkook who’s bright and breathy, or Gummy who’s nasal and tight, I wouldn’t say they’re saxophone like personally. So I’d say this falls on the spectrum of subjectivity more than anything else so to an extent technique can affect the sound of one’s voice and make them sound more like an instrument or the other due to chestiness, brightness, brassiness and whantot, but I can’t say I hear the same you do for all of these examples. Jessica to me is definitely a lot brighter than Baekhyun. You don’t need to be nasal to sing contemporary, but placing the sound forward does help as opposed to keeping it in the soft palate like for classical singing.

      Liked by 1 person

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